I had a TCGA barcode that I wanted to extract information about the sample type (ie: cut out characters 14-15). This would have been easy to do in Python (ex: id[13:15] or id.split("-")[0:2]), but I wanted to be able to do this inside R. To do this I found a handy little base function called substr. This is a function that allows you to take a subset of a string. Here is the code to extract characters 14-15 from a string:
substr(x=id, start=14, stop=15)
or also from a variable called ids:
substr(x=data$ids, start=14, stop=15)
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